Learning, Leading, and Loving Literacy

Posts tagged ‘reading strategies’

Summer Literacy Lessons

Each year, we are lucky enough to partner with Providence College and host their students from the Graduate Literacy Program.  The students are teachers who are working to earn their Master’s degree and become certified Reading Specialists.  In order to do that, one of their final courses requires that they work intensively with students who struggle with aspects of reading and/or writing. We invite students from our school who could benefit from extra summer instruction for a four week intensive Summer Literacy Program.  It is a win-win for our students and the Providence College students.

The children work in very small groups (1:2 teacher to students ratio) and get individualized instruction from teachers who are motivating, caring, and learning best practice.  Of course our goal is to have the students maintain or make gains in literacy learning – but it is also to foster their love for reading and writing.  We work on developing basic skills such as phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, fluency, and self-monitoring.  However, we always put the joy of reading and writing first and work on these skills by reading real texts and writing real pieces for authentic audiences.  In short, we focus on what it really means to be a reader and writer.

We are just starting week 3 of our program.  Our daily schedule consists of reader’s workshop, a whole class lesson, and writer’s workshop.  Our whole class lessons are designed to enhance the individual lessons of the reader’s and writer’s workshops. Below are some samples of what we have learned so far, and how families can encourage and support the work we have been doing at home.

Lessons in Reading:  We have learned

  • How to use punctuation to make our reading sound good and make sense
  • How to check that our reading makes sense, sounds right, and looks right
  • How to ask questions and wonder as we read
  • How to use clues within the text to figure out the meaning of new words

How you can help at home:  Looking at the lessons above, there are many ways to support the work we have done. The best way to help and support your child at home is to read with them and talk with them about what they have read.

As you share a story, model your thinking such as asking “I wonder why the character did that?” to model asking questions.

Change your voice as you read aloud and mention “I saw the exclamation point so I knew I had to make my voice sound excited”.

When you read a new or unfamiliar word, model your thinking about what the word might mean. “They say the bird was perched on the branch and from the picture I notice the bird sitting on top of it.  That must be what perched means.”

When you notice your child reading and making an error, give him or her some wait time to see if they notice the error as well.  If not, wait until the end of the page and then say something like “You said ‘The bunny hopped in the call grass (if your child read call/cool).  Does that make sense?”  Always ask your child to check if his or her reading makes sense, sounds right, and looks right;  all three are important.

Lessons In Writing:  We have learned

  • How to plan out our writing to include a beginning, middle, and end
  • How to add details to our writing to help readers visualize our story

How you can help at home: Good writing almost always begin with good language.  Talking about the events that happen in life is a great way to prepare your child to become a better writer.

As you recount something you did throughout the day, model how to retell the events in order using words such as first, then, next, and last.  A great way to do this is to ask your child to tell another adult about something that happened.  For example, when my husband comes home, I might ask my son to “tell daddy what happened when we went outside today” and then begin by modeling “First, we went outside to go on a nature walk. Then…” and I let my son fill in the blanks.  Modeling that story structure makes children become familiar with the sequencing of a story and it will become natural for them to tell stories in this way.

Additionally, expand your child’s vocabulary (and ability to add details to their storytelling and writing) through conversation. The best way to do this is by using a strategy called the PEER strategy by Grover J. Whitehurst as you read or talk:

PEER Sequence:

Prompt the child to say something about the book or topic.

Evaluate the child’s response.

Expand the child’s response by rephrasing and adding information to it.

Repeat the prompt to make sure the child has learned from the expansion.

Example:  You bring your child to the beach and on the way home you ask “What did you see at the beach today?” Your child says “I saw the waves”. (Prompt)  You answer “Yes (Evaluate), we saw the waves crashing on the shore.  They were tall and moved quickly” (Expand). Finish by saying “Did you see those tall waves today? (Repeat to see if the child picks up on and uses the new vocabulary).

This is a very simplified example and usually reserved for reading but the concept is to take every opportunity you have to expand your child’s speaking vocabulary as this will prepare them when they write.

Summary:  I have a poster hanging on the wall of my classroom and it is one of my favorites.  It says “The Top 10 ways to become a Better Reader: 1.Read 2.Read 3.Read 4.Read 5.Read 6.Read 7.Read 8.Read 9.Read 10.Read”. The best way to help and support your child is to enjoy and talk about books with them.  We are having a great time with the kids and hope that knowing what skills and strategies we are working on will help you think about how to expand this work at home.  In a future post, I will include a list of the books we have read aloud so that you can share them with your child as well.





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The Importance of Self-Monitoring

When we think of reading and reading instruction there are two things that become important to focus on and distinguish: reading skills and reading strategies/behavior.  Reading skills consist of things like phonemic awareness (can students hear, isolate, and blend sounds in words?), knowledge of the alphabet letters, clusters and sounds, and knowledge of high-frequency words (words that appear most often in books like “they”, “said”, many”, etc).  Of course, young readers need to have some of these core skills as they learn to read which is why we spend time purposefully teaching these skills.

Even more important, however, are the strategies and behaviors (self-monitoring and self-correcting) that a child uses when reading.  The skills are the base and the strategies are how well readers know and are able to use their skills to create meaning as they read.

One problem that is typical for struggling readers (and particularly for some of my students this year) is a lack of self-monitoring or self-correction.  In simple terms, self-monitoring is the ability to notice errors and self-correction is the ability to fix them.  Many kids who struggle have the skills they need to succeed in reading, but are weak at detecting errors and fixing them.  What that looks like are students who read a text and neglect to stop when their reading does not make sense, or students who read and neglect to stop when their reading doesn’t look right, or a combination of both.  Students who do not notice their own errors are actually trickier to teach than students who need to be taught certain skills.  Self-monitoring requires that you:

  1. Notice your mistake (you hear it or see it)
  2. Stop your reading when you notice
  3. Employ some strategies to go back and self-correct the error, or at least ask for help

So what can we do for students who don’t self-monitor?  Those students who read on, making numerous errors, without ever noticing or stopping to fix them?  It’s an issue that you want to address early and with vigor because it will shape who they are as readers for years to come.

First, be their eyes and ears: If a student is not noticing errors, you may have to show them what it means to notice an error.  If the child reads something that does not make sense, repeat their words back to them saying

“You said_____________….does that make sense?”

You are hoping that they will recognize that no, it does not make sense.  At this point, let them know that they have to listen to their own reading and stop when the reading does not make sense.

If the child reads something that does make sense and does not look right, wait until they finish the sentence or the page (to encourage smooth processing and comprehension) and then bring them back to the error saying

“You said_________ and that made sense.  Does it look right?”

What you mean when you say this is “do the words you said match the words you see?”.  So, if a child says “bunny” and the text says “rabbit”, that makes sense, but the child is not checking that the reading looks right. Encourage this checking.

Second, encourage them to stop when they notice an error: Some students begin to notice errors, yet don’t stop to fix them.  Perhaps they have an idea that they made an error, but feel uncomfortable stopping because they think it’s not what readers do.  If a child makes an error and shows any signs of hesitation, pausing, or uncertainty, praise them.

“I like how you stopped…what did you notice?”  or

“I like how you stopped when it didn’t make sense.” or

“I like how you stopped when it didn’t look right.”

Make it known that stopping and noticing an error is very important and something that great readers do.  It requires attention, both to meaning and to visual information, and is a strategy they need  to become independent.

Finally, show them what to do when they do notice and error: If the child does begin to stop and notice errors, that is wonderful and now they can be shown what to do next.  Options include going back to reread, thinking about the meaning in the story, or decoding the tricky word.  Showing them what to do will give them the tools to self-correct independently and they will feel more confident stopping the next time they make an error.

Teaching young readers to notice errors and fix them is the first step in creating independence.  I worry about students who read words on the page without thinking, never stopping to notice errors or asking for help when it’s tricky.  These students haven’t really grasped the concept of what it means to be a reader – to use the words on the page to create a meaningful message using the author’s words.  Without a meaningful or accurate message, kids are just word calling, and that won’t create lifelong readers who love to read.